Home All What Leaders Must Do, Know & “Be”

Margaret Greenberg, MAPP '06, is co-author of Profit from the Positive. After a 15-year career in corporate HR, she founded The Greenberg Group, an organizational effectiveness consulting practice, in 1997. Margaret specializes in coaching executives and their teams using a strengths-based approach. Full bio.

Margaret's solo articles are here and her articles with Senia Maymin are here.

When I reflect on all that I learned last year in the University of Pennsylvania’s Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP), it sometimes makes my head spin.  I’m reminded of the notion of clarity that Buckingham describes in his book The One Thing You Need to Know (2005).   I’m taking Buckingham’s advice and am placing less value on all that I can remember and instead have consciously chosen to focus on those few things I must never forget.

One way to look at leadership is through a three-part frame:  What leaders must Do, Know and Be.  At the intersection of these three components, the shaded area, is excellence.  It’s where action, feeling and thinking are aligned and integrated into a consistent whole.

Intersecting Behaviors

Intersecting Behaviors

There are countless leadership models that purport all kinds of competencies and qualities that are essential to leadership.  Most models focus on what leaders must be able to do and know.  Only in the last decade or so has the field of leadership development begun examining who leaders need to be.  From my study of Positive Psychology I have distilled six things that I must never forget.  My hope is other leaders will find them helpful, too.  

What Leaders must DO
I see two essential ingredients to DOING:  Leaders build relationships and create a shared vision for a better future.

  • Build Relationships: Leaders build relationships and ultimately trust by authentically connecting with people, being fully present, and making others feel good about themselves.  From the study of Positive Psychology we know positive emotions produce feelings of self-efficacy.  Fredrickson’s Broaden and Build Theory and Dutton’s work on high quality connections are evidence for the importance of building relationships.  University of Southern California’s professor Warren Bennis sums up the importance of building relationships:  “If you think about it, people love others not for who they are, but for how they make us feel.  We willingly follow for much the same reason.  It makes us feel good to do so.”
  • Create a Shared Vision: Leadership is about helping people find a shared vision or purpose that not only creates a better future, but also provides meaning in their work.  A leader must appeal to a very basic human fear – of the unknown – by transforming confidence in the future.  What better way to assuage people’s fears than by defining the future?  To quote University of Nebraska professor Bruce Avolio, “Leaders bring the future to the present.”  Creating a shared vision, using an Appreciative Inquiry approach, is one way to engage people at all levels of an organization.  Buy-in to the vision becomes moot because people have been involved from the start in helping to shape it.  Positive Psychology has much to contribute here, including Bandura’s work on visualizing success, and Pratt and Ashforth’s work on meaningfulness in and at work.  Meaningful work is central to positive organizations. 

What Leaders must KNOW
Leaders must know that higher productivity and innovation, essential to maintaining one’s competitive advantage, can only be achieved through the alignment of strengths and requires leadership at all levels in an organization. 

  • Alignment of Strengths: Most organizations take their employees’ strengths for granted and focus on minimizing weaknesses or closing gaps.  This is not how excellence and competitive advantage are built.  Positive Psychology has much empirical evidence to support a strength-based leadership approach.  We’ve learned if you can carve out roles that draw upon your strengths everyday, you will be more productive, fulfilled, and successful.  Assessment tools, like Gallup’s StrengthsFinder and Seligman/Peterson’s VIA Signature Strengths, can help a leader identify, understand, and leverage her strengths.  Only then can a leader truly appreciate and leverage the strengths of others.
  • Leaders At All Levels: I believe everyone has the potential to be a leader.  I’m reminded of a quote from Ralph Nader:  “I start with the premise that the function of leadership is to produce more leaders, not more followers.”  Positive Psychology has taught us that by discovering one’s natural talents or strengths we can apply these gifts in our life and in service of others.  Mike Morrison, Dean of Toyota University, in his book Leading Through Meaning, describes how today’s competitive realities require leadership at all levels, not merely reserving leadership to a few at the top. 

What Leaders must BE
Leadership is truly a way of being.  If you have the ingredients in the first two domains, but ignore the being domain, I do not believe you can be an effective leader.  I see two essential ingredients to being:  Leadership is about being authentic and being optimistic of the future. 

  • Authentic: Who we are being as leaders begins with “knowing thyself”.  The fields of Positive Psychology and Organizational Development offer a number of assessment tools to assist in this discovery.  I believe leadership starts from the inside and goes outward and authenticity is the fundamental stating point of Leadership.  Authenticity is discovered and highlighted through ongoing feedback, reflection, and action.  This is where an executive coach can add the most value.  If a leader wants to change an organization I believe she must start by changing herself.  As Gandhi said, “You must be the change you seek in the world.”  
  • Optimistic: Leadership is about inspiring hope for a better future.  Positive Psychology has much to offer around hope theory and optimism.  While some leaders are blessed with a dispositional optimistic style, others can learn “to be” more optimistic by knowing their explanatory style and changing their behavior through such techniques as disputing, reframing, and active-constructive responding.  Researchers have found that optimistic people are more successful, healthier, and happier.  Imagine applying this concept now to organizations.  Is there a contagion effect when the leader is optimistic?  What role does optimism play in realizing a shared vision?  I believe optimism is essential to being an effective leader and creating a shared vision.  Without it, there is no hope, no reason to stretch, and no belief that an organization can rally to achieve its vision.

Build Relationships, Create a Shared Vision, Alignment of Strengths, Leaders at all Levels, Authentic, and Optimistic – these are the elements of leadership that I shall never forget.


Buckingham, M. (2005).  The One Thing You Need to Know: … About Great Managing, Great Leading, and Sustained Individual Success.  New York, NY:  Free Press.

Dutton, J. (2003). Energize Your Workplace: How to Create and Sustain High-Quality Connections at Work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Morrison, M. (2003).  Leading Through Meaning.  Torrance, CA:  University of Toyota.

Pratt, M. & Ashford, B. (2003).  In K. Cameron, J. Dutton, & Quinn, R. (Eds.) Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline, pp. 309-327. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler.


Not seeing the pictures for the book links? Disable Adblocking for this site to view them.

You may also like


David J. Pollay 15 April 2007 - 12:12 am

Hi Margaret,

You demonstrate again what a great coach you are. You make the path to leadership a clear one. Like Buckingham, you don’t confuse people in complex models; you bring it home for us in a powerful and memorable way.

Thanks as always Margaret!


p.s. Congrats on the recent publication of your research with Dana Arakawa. Good work!

Margaret 15 April 2007 - 7:28 am

David, thank you for your positive feedback! Your gift of storytelling has the same effect – powerful & memorable. “Plainspoken” came up in my Gallup report – I’m guessing it showed up in yours, too. I often think of my role as a translator between 2 worlds – in this case academia & business. Thanks again for writing, Margaret

Kathryn Britton 15 April 2007 - 2:14 pm


As I read your article, I started thinking about people in my world who will find your summary useful — people who have learned that they cannot succeed by themselves, they need others to be successful, people who find the word “Leader” daunting and out of reach, people who are labeled leaders but may be confused about what that entails, people who don’t know that their jobs as leaders means that they need to create a positive image of the future (in Jane Dutton’s words). Thanks for putting it into words so succinctly.


Senia 15 April 2007 - 3:11 pm


I love this article. It captures so succinctly by example that most important idea of focus. It’s also great to read this having seen you do the Be-Do-Know brainstorming session.

And, most importantly, I really like your six points. I’ve very much bought in to optimism and authenticity. I completely support what you describe leaders need to do, and the strengths “know” point. And I’m most intriqued – because it’s not the first thing I’ve found my coaching clients thinking about in management situations – by your “know” point of leaders at all levels.

Thank you!

p.s. On the importance of focus … I find it so interesting that on http://www.psychologymatters.org, one of the main psychology findings of the past fifty years is that FOCUS is critical, especially when you look at the costs of multi-tasking (http://www.psychologymatters.org/multitask0306.html).

Doug Turner 15 April 2007 - 7:38 pm

Margaret: I want you to be my coach! I look forward to the 14th of each month to get your latest contribution. I find the “do-know-be” model has other applications in addition to leadership. For example, at work we use it when designing training of any kind. At home, I think about what my kid need to do-know-be to be happy well-adjusted adults. Thanks for sharing your thoughts and enthusiasm. All the best, Doug

Margaret 1 May 2007 - 7:53 pm

Kathryn, Senia and Doug – I’m so glad you found the DO/KNOW/BE model a succint way to talk about leadership. Imagine engaging a group of managers by asking them to fill in the model themselves or with a peer and then go around the room and share the different perspectives?

Senia, I’m going to check out the multitasking site — I now start every workshop I facilitate by asking people if they have heard about “absent presence” — then I mimic the flight attendant who asks that during take off & landing we turn off all electronic devices. Thanks again for your positive feedback! Margaret


Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

WP Twitter Auto Publish Powered By : XYZScripts.com