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CSM References

This document contains the list of references that support the book, Character Strengths Matter, organized by the various character strengths in alphabetical order followed by the applications in the order they appear in the book. The first set of references are ones that appear in many chapters, so they are listed once rather than repeated. Click here to download a pdf version of the reference list.

The following table provides hyperlinks to help you get to the references for a particular character strength or application quickly.

Front Matter
Shared references Acting as if
Part I: Exploring Strengths
Appreciation Courage Creativity Curiosity Fairness
Forgiveness Gratitude Hope Humility Humor
Integrity Kindness Leadership Love Love of Learning
Open-mindedness Persistence Perspective Prudence Self-regulation
Social Intelligence Spirituality Teamwork Zest Compound strengths
Part II: Applications
Business Assessments Vacation Children Youth
What we know about character strengths

 

 
Shared References

Multiple chapters refer to the following resources, so they are not repeated in the lists below.

Peterson, C. & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

On pages xiii and xiv of Character Strengths and Virtues, there is a list of the key contributors to the book, researchers with special expertise related to one or more character strengths. For each strength below, we list the key contributors mentioned in that list.

Peterson, C., (2006). A Primer in Positive Psychology New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T., Park, N. & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical evaluation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5): 410-21.

Take the Free VIA Survey. VIA Institute on Character

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Acting “as if”

Bem, D. J. (1972). Self-perception theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 1-62). New York: Academic Press.

Stanislavsky, K. (1936, 1989). Building A Character. Translated by E. R. Hapgood. Routledge Reprint Editions.

Stanislavsky, K. (1936, 1989). An Actor Prepares. Routledge Reprint Editions.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. Reprinted in M. Gauvain & M. Cole (Eds.), Readings on the Development of Children (2nd edition). New York: W. H. Freeman & Company.

Watts, R. E., Peluso, P. R., & Lewis, T. F. (2005). Expanding the Acting As If Technique: An Adlerian/Constructive Integration. Journal of Individual Psychology, 61 (4), 380-387.

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Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Jonathan Haidt, Dacher Keltner

Algoe, S. B. & Haidt, J. (2009). Witnessing excellence in action: The ‘‘other-praising’’ emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration. Journal of Positive Psychology. 4: 105–127.

Darwin, C. (1872, 1998). The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals (with an Introduction by Paul Ekman. Definitive Edition, New York: Oxford University Press.

Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions?. Review of General Psychology, 2, 300-319.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226.

Fredrickson, B.L. (2003). Positive emotions and upward spirals in organizations. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline, (pp. 163-174). San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler.

Fredrickson, B.L. (2004). Gratitude (like other positive emotions) broadens and builds. In R.A. Emmons & M.E. McCullough (Eds.), The Psychology of Gratitude (Series in Affective Science) (pp. 145-166). Oxford University Press.

Haidt, J. (2003). Elevation and the positive psychology of morality. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive Psychology and the Life Well-Lived (pp. 275-289). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Haidt, J. (2003). The moral emotions. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Sherer, & H. H. Goldsmith, Handbook of Affective Sciences (pp. 852-870). New York: Oxford University Press.

Haidt, J. (2006). The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom. New York: Basic Books.

Haidt, J. & Seder, P. (2009). Admiration and awe. In D. Sander & K. Scherer (Eds.), Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences. New York: Oxford University Press.

Keltner, D. & Haidt, J. (2003). Approaching awe: A moral, spiritual, and aesthetic emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 17(2), 297-314.

Keltner, D. & Ekman, P. (2000). Facial expression of emotion. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions, Second Edition (pp. 236-249). Guilford Press.

Vianello, M., Galliani, E.M. & Haidt, J. (2010). Elevation at work: The effects of leaders’ moral excellence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5:5, 390 — 411.

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Courage

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Tracy A. Steen, Monica C. Worline

Biswas-Diener, R. (2012). The Courage Quotient. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Haidt, J. (2012). The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion. Pantheon Press.

Haidt, J. & Graham, J. (2007). When Morality Opposes Justice: Conservatives Have Moral Intuitions that Liberals may not Recognize. Social Justice Research, 20(1), 98-116.

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Creativity

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Dean Keith Simonton

See also Kashdan references under Curiosity.

Kelley, T. & Kelley, D. (2014). Creative Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential Within Us All. Crown Business.

Kelley, T. & Kelley, D. (2012). Reclaim your creative confidence. Harvard Business Review.

Robinson, Sir K. (2006). Schools Kill Creativity. TED talk.

OpenIDEO: “OpenIDEO is an open innovation platform. Join our global community to solve big challenges for social good.”

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Curiosity

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Todd Kashdan

Andersen, S.M., Reznik, I., & Glassman, N.S. (2005). The unconscious relational self. In R. Hassin, & J.S. Uleman, & J.A. Bargh (Eds.), The New Unconscious (Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience), (pp. 421-481). New York: Oxford University Press.

Aron, A., Paris, M., & Aron, E. N. (1995). Falling in love: Prospective studies of self-concept change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1102-1112.

Kashdan, T. (no date). How Curious? Will Help You: An Essay. HarperCollins Canada.

Kashdan, T. (2009). Curious?: Discover the Missing Ingredient to a Fulfilling Life. New York: William Morrow.

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Fairness

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Marvin W. Berkowitz and Stephen A. Sherblom

Aristotle (1925, 2009). The Nicomachean Ethics (Oxford World’s Classics). Trans. Sir David Ross. London: Oxford University Press.

de Waals, F. (2011). Moral behavior in animals. TED Talk.

Haidt, J. (2012). The Righteous Mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion. New York: Pantheon.

Lounsbury, J. W., Fisher, L. A., Levy, J. J., & Welsh, D. P. (2009). Investigation of character strengths in relation to the academic success of college students. Individual Differences Research, 7 (1), 52-69.

Money, K., Hillenbrand, C., & Camara, N. D. (2008). Putting positive psychology to work in organizations. Journal of General Management, 34 (2), 21-26. Abstract.

National Geographic documentary (2008). Stress: Portrait of a Killer, featuring Robert Sapolsky. Youtube.

Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2006) Character strengths in fifty-four nations and the fifty US states. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1 (3), 118-129.

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Strengths of character in schools. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology in Schools (pp. 65-76). Routledge.

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2008). Positive psychology and character strengths: Application to strengths-based school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 12 (2), 85-9An2. Abstract.

Rashid, T., Anjum, A., Lennox, C., Denise Quinlan, D., Niemiec, R. M., Mayerson, D., & Kazemi, F. (2013). Assessment of character strengths in children and adolescents. In C. Proctor and P.A. Linley (eds.),
Research, Applications, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents: A Positive Psychology Perspective. Springer.

Vaillant, G. (2003). Aging Well: Surprising Guideposts to a Happier Life from the Landmark Harvard Study of Adult Development. New York: Little Brown.

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Forgiveness

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Michael E. McCullough

Who is Forgiveness For?

Broyles, L.C. (2005). Resilience: Its relationship to forgiveness in older adults. Doctoral Dissertation. Retrieved from gradworks.umi.com. (3177245).

Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). The How of Happiness: A Scientific Approach to Getting the Life You Want. New York: Penguin Books.

Post, S. and Neimark, J. (2007). Why Good Things Happen to Good People: How to Live a Longer, Healthier, Happier Life by the Simple Act of Giving. New York: Broadway Books.

Worthington, E. and Scherer, M. (2004). Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: Theory, review, and hypotheses. Psychology & Health, 19, 385-405.

Forgiveness or Revenge?

Luchies, Laura B., Finkel, Eli J., McNulty, James K., Kumashiro, Madoka, (2010). The Doormat Effect: When Forgiving Erodes Self-Respect and Self-Concept Clarity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 734–749.

McCullough, M.E., (2008). Beyond Revenge: The Evolution of the Forgiveness Instinct. Jossey Bass.

McCullough, M. E., Luna, L. R., Berry, J. W., Tabak, B. A., & Bono, G. (2010). On the form and function of forgiving: Modeling the time-forgiveness relationship and testing the valuable relationships hypothesis. Emotion, 10, 358-376.

McCullough, M. E., Kurzban, R., & Tabak, B. A. (2010). Evolved mechanisms for revenge and forgiveness. In P. R. Shaver and M. Mikulincer (eds.), Understanding and reducing aggression, violence, and their consequences (pp. 221-239). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

McCullough, M. E., Root, L. M., Tabak, B., & Witvliet, C. v. O. (2009). Forgiveness. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology (Oxford Library of Psychology) (2nd ed.). (pp. 427-435). New York: Oxford.

McCullough, M. E., Bono, G., & Root, L. M. (2007). Rumination, emotion, and forgiveness: Three longitudinal studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 490-505.

McCullough, M. E. (2000). Forgiveness as human strength: Theory, measurement, and links to well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 43-55.

McNulty, J. K. (2008). Forgiveness in marriage: Putting the benefits into context. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 171-175. Abstract.

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Gratitude

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Robert Emmons

Baumeister, R., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C. & Vohs, K. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5(4), 323-370.

Britton, K. H. (2014). Well-being and meaning on a seesaw. Positive Psychology News. Includes links to Tim Kasser’s work.

Britton, K. H. & Maymin, S. (Eds.) (2010). Gratitude: How to appreciate life’s gifts. Positive Psychology News Series.

Diener, E. & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Beyond money: Toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest.

Emmons, R. (2013). Gratitude Works!: A 21-Day Program for Creating Emotional Prosperity. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377-389. Abstract.

Gilbert, D. (2007). Stumbling on Happiness. New York: VIntage.

Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111-131.

Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). The Myths of Happiness: What Should Make You Happy, but Doesn’t, What Shouldn’t Make You Happy, but Does.

Pollay, D. J. (2007). Create Your Own “Happy Hour” – Serve 3 for 1 Gratitude. Positive Psychology News.

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Hope

There was no key contributor to the chapter on Hope listed in Character Strengths and Virtues.

Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). The How of Happiness: A Scientific Approach to Getting the Life You Want. New York: Penguin Books.

Snyder, C. R. (2000). Handbook of Hope : Theory, Measures, and Applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

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Humility

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Roy F. Baumeister, W. Keith Campbell, Julie Juola Exline, Thomas Joiner, Lauren V. Kachorek, Joachim I. Krueger

Bronk, K. C. (2008). Humility among adolescent purpose exemplars. Journal of Research in Character Education, 6(1), 35–51.

Collins, J. (2001). Level 5 leadership: The triumph of humility and fierce resolve. Harvard Business Review On Point article.

Exline, J. J. & Geyer, A. (2004). Perceptions of humility: A preliminary study. Self and Identity, 3, 95–114.

Benjamin Franklin, Passages from his Autobiography

Franklin, B. (1793, 1996). The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (Dover Thrift Editions). Dover press.

Myers, D. (1995). Humility: Theology meets psychology. Reformed Review, 48, 195-206.

Tangney, J. P. (2004). Humility. In C. R. Snyder & S. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 411-419). New York: Oxford University Press.

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Humor

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Willibald Ruch

Baumeister, R. (n.d.). The meanings of life: Happiness is not the same as a sense of meaning. How do we go about finding a meaningful life, not just a happy one?

Damasio, A. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Fredrickson, B., & Levenson, R. (1998). Positive Emotions Speed Recovery From The Cardiovascular Sequelae Of Negative Emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 12 (2), 191-220. Abstract.

Gervais, M. & Sloan Wilson, D. (2005). The Evolution and Functions of laughter and Humor: A Synthetic Approach. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 80(4), 395-430. Abstract.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. & McKee, A. (2002, 2013). Primal Leadership, With a New Preface by the Authors: Unleashing the Power of Emotional Intelligence(10th anniversary edition). Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

Greene, J. (2013). Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them. Penguin Press.

Haidt, J. (2012). The Righteous Mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion. New York: Pantheon.

Haidt, J. (2006). The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom. New York: Basic Books.

Kashdan, T., Biswas-Diener, R., & King, L. (n.d.). Reconsidering happiness: The costs of distinguishing between hedonics and eudaimonia. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3 (4), 219-233.

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Integrity

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Lucy Davidson, Elizabeth Pollard, Kennon M. Sheldon

Britton, K. H. (2014). Well-being and materialism on a seesaw. Positive Psychology News.

Ivtzan, I., Gardner, H. E., & Smailova, Z., (2011). Mindfulness meditation and curiosity: The contributing
factors to wellbeing and the process of closing the self-discrepancy gap
. International Journal of Wellbeing, 1(3), 316-327. doi:10.5502/ijw.v1i3.2

Kasser, T. (1995.). Aspiration Index.

Kasser, T. & Ryan, R. (1996). Further Examining the American Dream: Differential Correlates of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22: 280-287.

Lekes, N., Hope, N., Gouveia, L., Koestner, R. & Philippe, F. (2012). Influencing value priorities and increasing well-being: The effects of reflecting on intrinsic values. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7:3, 249-261. DOI:10.1080/17439760.2012.677468. First page preview.

Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2008). From ego depletion to vitality: Theory and findings concerning the facilitation of energy available to the self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 702–717. 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2008.00098.x

Steiner, S. (2012, February 1) Top five regrets of the dying. The Guardian.

Wood, A., Linley, A., Maltby, J., Baliousis, M., Joseph, M. (2008). The authentic personality: A theoretical and empirical conceptualization and the development of the Authenticity Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(3), 385–399. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.55.3.385

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Kindness

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Michael E. McCullough, Stephen G. Post

Lyubomirsky, S., Tkach, C., & Sheldon, K.M. (2004). [Pursuing sustained happiness through random acts of kindness and counting one’s blessings: Tests of two six-week interventions]. Unpublished raw data. Results presented in: Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131.

Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). The How of Happiness: A Scientific Approach to Getting the Life You Want. New York: Penguin Books.

Weinstein, N & Ryan, R. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for pro-social behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98 (2), 222–244.

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Leadership

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Stephen J. Zaccaro

Rath, T. & Conchie, B. (2009). Strengths-Based Leadership. New York: Gallup Press.

Rath, T. (2004). How Full Is Your Bucket? Positive Strategies for Work and Life New York: Gallup Press.

Rath, T. (2007). StrengthsFinder 2.0: A New and Upgraded Edition of the Online Test from Gallup’s Now, Discover Your Strengths. New York: Gallup Press.

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Love and be Loved

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Cindy Hazan

How to Tell Ersatz Love from Real Love and Happiness Equals Love, Full Stop

Cohen, A. (2008). What is love anyway?. Positive Psychology News.

Cohen, A. (2009). How sweet it is …. Positive Psychology News.

Fisher, H., Aron, A., & Brown, L. L. (2005) Romantic love: an fMRI study of a neural mechanism for mate choice. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 493, 58-62.

Great Soviet Encyclopedia. (1973) Vol 15, p. 153, 3rd Edition, English Edition, Jean Paradise (Ed.). New York: MacMillan Publishing. Quote above: p. 153.

Insel, TR. and Young, LJ. (2002) The neurobiology of attachment. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2, 129-136.

Lewis, T., Amini, F., & Lanoran, R.. (2000). A General Theory of Love. New York: Random House.

Uvnas Moberg, K. (2003) The Oxytocin Factor: Tapping the Hormone of Calm, Love, and Healing. Cambridge, MA: DeCapo Press.

Vaillant, G. (2008). Spiritual Evolution: A Scientific Defense of Faith. New York: Broadway Press.

Vaillant, G. (2012). Triumphs of Experience: The Men of the Harvard Grant Study. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press.

Mindful Love

Carson, J.W., Carson, K.M., Gil, K.M., & Baucom, D.H. (2004). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behavior Therapy, 35, 471-494.

Cronlund, K. (2009). Mindfulness Part 1: The best bang for your buck and Mindfulness Part 2: A Basis for Coaching. Positive Psychology News. Kirsten wrote an earlier version of this article that was published in 2009. However it is so appropriate for Valentine’s Day that we’re publishing it again with minor updates.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Love 2.0: How Our Supreme Emotion Affects Everything We Feel, Think, Do, and Become. Hudson Street Press.

Frewen, P.A., Evans, E.M., Maraj, N., Dozois, D.J.A., & Partridge, K. (2008). Letting go: mindfulness and negative automatic thinking. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 758-774.

Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Mitra, R., Franks, L., Richter, A., & Rockliff, H. (2008). Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism. Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(3), 182-191.

Leon, I., Hernandez, J.A., Rodriguez, S., & Vila, J. (2009). When head is tempered by heart: heart rate variability modulates perception of other-blame reducing anger. Motivation and Emotion, 33: 1–9.

Lyke, J.A. (2009). Insight, but not self-reflection, is related to subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 66-70.

Schwartz, B. (2004). The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less. New York: Ecco.

Thayer, J.F. & Lane, R.D. (2009). Claude Bernard and the heart-brain connection: further elaboration of a model of neurovisceral integration. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 81-88.

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Love of Learning

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: K. Ann Renninger, Carol Sansone, Jessi L. Smith

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York: Basic Books.

Peterson, C., Ruch, W., Beermann, U., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2007). Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, and life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(3), 149-156.

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Open-Mindedness, Judgment, Critical Thinking

Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569-582.

Stanovich, W., & West, R. (2008). On the failure of cognitive ability to predict myside and one-sided thinking biases. Thinking & Reasoning, 14 (2), 129 – 167.

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Persistence

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Andrew C. Harter, Dianne M. Tice, Harry M. Wallace

Csiksentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience.. New York: Harper Perennial.

Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews & Kelly (2006). Grit, perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-101.

Duckworth, A.L., Seligman, M.E.P.S. (2005). Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents. Psychological Science, 16, 939-944.

Dweck, C. (2002). Messages that motivate: How praise molds students’ beliefs, motivation, and performance (in surprising ways). In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education (Educational Psychology), (pp. 37-60). San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press.

Dweck, C. (2007). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Ballantine Books.

Pausch, R. (2008). The Last Lecture. Hyperion Press.

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Perspective

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Pamela S. Hartman

Money, K., Hillenbrand, C., & Camara, N. D. (2008). Putting positive psychology to work in organizations. Journal of General Management, 34 (2), 21-26. Abstract.

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2006). Methodological issues in positive psychology and the assessment of character strengths. In A. D. Ong & M. van Dulmen, (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Methods in Positive Psychology (Series in Positive Psychology) (pp. 292-305). New York: Oxford University.

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2008). Positive psychology and character strengths: Application to strengths-based school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 12 (2), 85-92. Kindle edition.

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Character strengths: Research and practice. Journal of College and Character, 10 (4), np. Abstract.

Peterson, C., Ruch, W., Beerman, U., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2007). Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, and life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 149-156. Abstract.

Steen, T. A., Kachorek, L. V., & Peterson, C. (2003). Character strengths among youth. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 32 (1), 5-16.

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Prudence

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Nick Haslam

Atterstam, T., Britton, K., Judge, E. & Ufberg, M. (2006). Bringing Positive Psychology to the Footlights After School Center. Service Learning Project, Masters of Applied Positive Psychology Program.

Comte-Sponville, A. (1996). A Small Treatise on the Great Virtues: The Uses of Philosophy in Everyday Life. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Emmons, R. A. (2004). Personal goals, life meaning, and virtue: Wellsprings of a positive life. In C. Keyes & J. Haidt, Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived. In C. L. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive Psychology and the Life Well-Lived, (pp. 105-128). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Gladwell, M. (2001). The mosquito killer. New Yorker. “Millions of people owe their lives to Fred Soper. Why isn’t he a hero?”

Haslam, N. (1991). Prudence: Aristotelian perspectives on practical reason. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 21, 151-169.

Jeffries, V. (1998). Virtue and the altruistic personality. Sociological Perspectives, 41, 151-167. Preview.

Miller, C. A. & Frisch, M. B. (2009), Creating Your Best Life: The Ultimate Life List Guide. New York: Sterling.

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2008). Positive psychology and character strengths: Application to strengths-based school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 12(2), 85-92.

Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). Character strengths in fifty-four nations and the fifty US states. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(3), 118-129.

Peterson, C. & Seligman, M. E. P. (2001). How can we allow character to matter?. Essay for Center for Positive Organizational Scholarship.

Steen, T.A, Kachorek, L.V. & Peterson, C. (2003). Character strengths among youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 32(1), 5-16.

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Self-regulation

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Roy F. Baumeister, Kathleen D. Vohs

Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., Potts, H. W., & Wardle, J. (2009). How are habits formed: Modeling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(6), 998-1009. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.674

Thorn, C. A., Atallah, H., Howe, M., & Graybiel, A. M. (2010). Differential dynamics of activity changes in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatal loops during learning. Neuron, 66(5), 781-795. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.04.036

Maymin, S. (2007). Create New Habits: Self-Regulation. PositivePsychologyNews.com

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Social Intelligence

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: John D. Mayer, Peter Salovey

Post, S. & Neimark, J. (2008). Why Good Things Happen to Good People: How to Live a Longer, Healthier, Happier Life by the Simple Act of Giving. New York: Broadway.

Pruett, K. (2001). Fatherneed: Why Father Care is as Essential as Mother Care for Your Child. New York: Broadway.

Pruett, K. (2009). Partnership Parenting: How Men and Women Parent Differently–Why It Helps Your Kids and Can Strengthen Your Marriage. Da Capo Lifelong Books.

Live via satellite or webcast from New York’s 92nd Street Y: Building Empathy & Resilience: The Role of the Early Childhood Educator — The live broadcast is now over, but you can purchase a DVD from this site.

A YouTube interview with Dr. Kyle Pruett

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Spirituality

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Jacqueline S. Mattis

Baumgardner, S. and Crothers, M. (2009). Positive Psychology (Value Pack w/MySearchLab). Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson Education, Inc.

Britton, K. H. (2012). Life stories of the oldest old. Positive Psychology News Daily.

Frankl, V. (1959). Man’s Search For Meaning. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Santrock, J (1997). Life-Span Development 12th Ed. McGraw-Hill.

Seligman, Martin (2002), Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment. New York: Free Press.

Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being. New York: Free Press.

Wolfelt, A. D. (2006). Companioning the Bereaved: A Soulful Guide for Counselors & Caregivers. Fort Collins CO: Companion Press.

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Teamwork, Citizenship

Key contributor to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Constance C. Flanagan

Bagozzi, R. P. (2003). Positive and negative emotions in organizations. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton & R. E.Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 176-193). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

Ford, J., O’Hare, D., Henderson, R. (2013). Putting the “We” Into Teamwork: Effects of Priming Personal or Social Identity on Flight Attendants’ Perceptions of Teamwork and Communication. Human Factors, 55(3): 499-508. Abstract.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2003). Positive emotions and upward spirals in organizations. In In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton & R. E.Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp.163-175). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

Haidt, J., Seder, J. P., & Kesebir, S. (2008). Hive psychology, happiness, and public policy. Journal of Legal Studies, 37, S133-S156.

Kashdan, T. B., McKnight, P. E., Fincham, F. D., & Rose, P. (2011). When curiosity breeds intimacy: Taking advantage of intimacy opportunities and transforming boring conversations. Journal of Personality, 79(6): 1369-1401. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00697.x

Kashdan, T.B., Afram, A., Brown, K.W., Birnbeck, M., & Drvoshanov, M. (2011). Curiosity enhances the role of mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to existential threat. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1227-1232.

Kashdan, T. (2009). Curious?: Discover the Missing Ingredient to a Fulfilling Life. New York: William Morrow.

Pink, D. (2013). To Sell Is Human: The Surprising Truth About Moving Others. Riverhead Trade.

Sober, E., & Wilson, D. S. (1998). Unto others: The evolution and psychology of unselfish behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

VIA Institute on Character. Teamwork as a top character strength.

Wilson, D. S. (2015). Does Altruism Exist?: Culture, Genes, and the Welfare of Others (Foundational Questions in Science). Yale University Press. Publication date: January 13.

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Zest, Vitality

Key contributors to the chapter on this strength in Character Strengths and Virtues: Jessey H. Bernstein, Richard M. Ryan

Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., & Sanz-Vergel, A.I. (2014). Burnout and work engagement: The JD-R approach. Organizational Behavior, 1, 389-411.

Leiter, M.P., & Maslach, C. (2005). Banishing Burnout: Six Strategies for Improving Your Relationship with Work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Maslach, C., & Leiter, M.P. (1997). The Truth About Burnout: How Organizations Cause Personal Stress and What to Do About It. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 603-619.

Peterson, C., Park, N., Hall, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2009). Zest and work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 161-172.

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Simple vs Complex Character Strengths

Yeager, J. (2009, July 11). I Think “Critically,” Therefore I Am: The 25th Strength. Positive Psychology News Daily.

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Part 2: Applications

 
Use in Business

Buckingham, M (2007). Go Put Your Strengths to Work: 6 Powerful Steps to Achieve Outstanding Performance. NY: Free Press.

Clifton, D.O., & Harter, J.K. (2003). Investing in Strengths. In A. K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & C. R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 111-121). San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler.

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Using Strengths Assessments

Buckingham, M (2007). Go Put Your Strengths to Work: 6 Powerful Steps to Achieve Outstanding Performance. NY: Free Press.

Clifton, D. & Harter, J. (2003). Investing in Strengths. In K. Cameron, J. Dutton, & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline, pp. 111-121. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler.

Cooperrider, D., Whitney, D. and Stavros,J. (2008). Appreciative Inquiry Handbook, 2nd Edition (Book & CD) . Brunswick, OH: Crown Publishing, Inc.

Linley, P. A., Willars, J. & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). The Strengths Book: Be Confident, Be Successful, and Enjoy Better Relationships by Realising the Best of You.

Peterson, C. & Seligman, M. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rath, T. & Conchie, B. (2009). Strengths-Based Leadership. New York: Gallup Press.

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Taking Strengths on a Vacation

Filep, S. (2009). Tourists’ happiness through the lens of positive psychology. PhD thesis, James Cook University.

Couper, G. E. (2001). The Psychology of Travel: A Theoretical Analysis of How Study Abroad and Positive Regression Affect Personal Growth and Career Choice. PhD thesis, Northcentral University. Available from Amazon.

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Using with Young Children

Peterson, C., Park, N. (2006a). Character Strengths and Happiness among Young Children: Content Analysis of Parental Descriptions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 524-539.

Rashid, T. (2011). Using Strengths at a Time of Trauma. YouTube video, VIA Strengths Library.

Steger, M. F., Hicks, B. M., Kashdan, T. A., Krueger, R. F. & Bouchard, T. J. (2007). Genetic and environmental influences on the positive traits of the Values in Action classification, and biometric covariance with normal personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 524-539.

Fox Eades, J. (2008). Celebrating Strengths: Building Strengths-based Schools. UK: Capp Press.

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With High Risk Youth

Erickson, E. (1968, 1994). Identity: Youth and Crisis (Austen Riggs Monograph). W. W. Norton.

Quinn, R. (2004). Building the bridge as you walk on it: A guide for leading change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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What We Know about Character Strengths

Andrewes, H. E., Walker, V., & O’Neill, B. (2014). Exploring the use of positive psychology interventions in brain injury survivors with challenging behavior. Brain Injury, 28, 965-971. Abstract.

Duan, W., Ho, S. M. Y., Tang, X., Li, T., & Zhang, Y. (2013). Character strength-based intervention to promote satisfaction with life in the Chinese university context. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 1347-1361. Abstract.

Forest, J., Mageau, G. V. A., Crevier-Braud, L., Bergeron, L., Dubreuil, P., & Lavigne, G. V. L. (2012). Harmonious passion as an explanation of the relation between signature strengths’ use and well-being at work: Test of an intervention program. Human Relations, 65, 1233-1252. Abstract.

Gander, F., Proyer, R. T., Ruch, W., & Wyss, T. (2012). Strength-based positive interventions: Further evidence for their potential in enhancing well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1241-1259. doi: 10.1007/s10902-012-9380-0

Harzer, C., & Ruch, W. (2012). When the job is a calling: The role of applying one’s signature strengths at work. Journal of Positive Psychology. Abstract.

Harzer, C., & Ruch, W. (2014). The role of character strengths for task performance, job dedication, interpersonal facilitation, and organizational support. Human Performance, 27(3), 183-205. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2014.913592. Abstract.

Harzer, C., & Ruch, W. (2015). The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 165. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00165

Linkins, M., Niemiec, R. M., Gillham, J., & Mayerson, D. (2014). Through the lens of strength: A framework for educating the heart. Journal of Positive Psychology. DOI: 10.1080/17439760.2014.888581

Madden, W., Green, S., & Grant, A. M. (2011). A pilot study evaluating strengths-based coaching for primary school students: Enhancing engagement and hope. International Coaching Psychology Review, 6, 71-83.

Mitchell, J., Stanimirovic, R., Klein, B., & Vella-Brodrick, D. (2009). A randomised controlled trial of a self-guided internet intervention promoting well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 749-760. Abstract.

Niemiec, R. (2013). Mindfulness and Character Strengths. Hogrefe.

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Character strengths: Research and practice. Journal of College and Character, x(4), 1-10. Abstract.

Proyer, R. T., Gander, F., Wellenzohn, S., & Ruch, W. (2014). Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50–79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression. Aging and Mental Health, 18, 997-1005. Abstract.

Rust, T., Diessner, R., & Reade, L. (2009). Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study. Journal of Psychology, 143(465-476). Abstract.

Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410–421.

VIA Institute (2010-2015). Unpublished research.

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